Ana Sayfa Kuantum Avantajı Sıradan bilgisayarlar sonuçta Google’ın kuantum bilgisayarını yenebilir

Sıradan bilgisayarlar sonuçta Google’ın kuantum bilgisayarını yenebilir

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Süper hızlı algoritma, 2019’da Google’ın makinesinin “kuantum üstünlüğü” elde ettiğini iddia etti

Kuantum hesaplama çağı 3 yıl önce doğduysa da yükselen güneşi bir bulutun arkasına saklanmış olabilir. 2019’da Google araştırmacıları, kuantum bilgisayarları Sycamore‘un bir süper bilgisayarı 10.000 yıl boyunca çalışağını söyledikleri karmaşık bir hesaplamayı 200 saniyede gerçekleştirdiğinde kuantum üstünlüğü olarak bilinen bir dönüm noktasını geçtiklerini iddia ettiler. Günümüzde, Çin’deki bilim insanları, sıradan işlemcilerle hesaplamayı birkaç saat içinde yaptılar. Bir süper bilgisayarın Sycamore’u doğrudan yenebileceğini söylüyorlar.

Austin, Texas Üniversitesi’nde bilgisayar bilimcisi Scott Aaronson, “Yeterince büyük bir süper bilgisayara erişimleri olsaydı, görevi birkaç saniye içinde simüle edebilirlerdi” diyor. Davis, California Üniversitesi’nde matematikçi olan Greg Kuperberg, ilerlemenin Google’ın iddiasını biraz parlattığını söylüyo:. “Zirveden 300 metreye çıkmak, zirveye çıkmaktan daha az heyecan verici.”

Yine de Kuperberg ve diğer bilim insanları, kuantum hesaplamanın vaadinin belirsiz kaldığını söylüyorlar. Google Quantum AI’nin baş bilimcisi Sergio Boixo, bir e-postada, Google ekibinin avantajının çok uzun süre dayanmayacağını bildiğini söyledi. “2019 makalemizde klasik algoritmaların gelişeceğini söylemiştik. Ancak, bu klasik yaklaşımın 2022 ve sonrasında kuantum devrelerine ayak uydurabileceğini düşünmüyoruz” dedi.

Çözülen “problem” Sycamore, geleneksel bir bilgisayar için zor ama aynı anda 0, 1 veya herhangi bir 0 ve 1 kombinasyonuna ayarlanabilen —kuantum mekaniği sayesinde— kübitleri manipüle eden bir kuantum bilgisayar için mümkün olduğunca kolay olacak şekilde tasarlandı. Birlikte, Sycamore’un süper iletken metalden yapılmış küçük rezonanslı elektrik devreleri olan 53 kübiti, 0’dan 253’e (kabaca 9 katrilyon) kadar herhangi bir sayıyı, hatta hepsini bir kerede kodlayabilir.

Google araştırmacıları, 0’a ayarlanmış tüm kübitlerle başlayarak, tek kübitlere başvurdu ve rastgele ancak sabit bir mantıksal işlem veya kapı kümesini 20 döngüden fazla eşleştirdi ve ardından kübitleri okudu. Kabaca söylemek gerekirse, tüm olası çıktıları temsil eden kuantum dalgaları, kübitler arasında dalgalandı ve kapılar, bazı çıktıları güçlendiren ve diğerlerini iptal eden girişim yarattı. Bu yüzden bazıları diğerlerinden daha büyük olasılıkla ortaya çıkmalıydı. Milyonlarca denemede, ani bir örüntü ortaya çıktı.

Google araştırmacıları, bu parazit etkilerinin simüle edilmesinin, 9216 merkezi işlem birimi ve daha hızlı 27.648 grafik işlem birimi (GPU) bulunan Oak Ridge Ulusal Laboratuvarı’ndaki bir süper bilgisayar olan Summit‘i bile bunaltacağını savundu. Summit’i geliştiren IBM’li araştırmacılar, bilgisayarın kullanabileceği her bir sabit disk parçasını kullanırlarsa, hesaplamayı birkaç gün içinde halledebileceklerini söyleyerek, hızla karşılık verdiler.Günümüzde, Çin Bilimler Akademisi, Teorik Fizik Enstitüsü istatistiksel fizikçisi olan Pan Zhang ve meslektaşları, Physical Review Letters’da yayınlanan bir makalede Sycamore’u nasıl yeneceklerini gösterdiler.

Diğer bilim insanlarını takiben, Zhang ve meslektaşları, problemi tensör ağı adı verilen 3B (Boyutlu) matematiksel bir dizi olarak yeniden şekillendirdiler Bu dizi,Her bir kübit için bir tane olmak üzere ve her bir katmanda 53 noktadan oluşan ve her bir kapı döngüsü için bir tane olmak üzere 20 katmandan oluşuyor.. Dizide, çizgilerin, kapıları temsil etmesi için noktalar birbirine bağladı. Her kapı bir tensörde kodlandı. Böylece 2B veya 4B karmaşık sayılar şebekesi oluştu. Daha sonra, simülasyonu çalıştırmak için tüm tensörleri çarpmaya indirgendi. Zhang, “Tensor ağ yönteminin avantajı, hesaplamaları paralel olarak yapmak için birçok GPU kullanabilmemizdir” diyor.

Zhang ve meslektaşları da önemli bir farkındalığa güvendiler: Sycamore’un hesaplaması kesin olmaktan çok uzaktı, dolayısıyla kesin olması da gerekmiyordu. Sycamore, çıktıların dağılımını tahmini olarak %0,2’lik bir doğrulukla hesapladı- bu doğruluk payı, parmak izine benzer orjinalliği devredeki gürültüden ayırmaya yetecek kadardır. Böylece Zhang’ın ekibi, işlemlerin daha hızlı gerçekleşebilmesi adına, ağındaki bazı hatları keserek ve ilgili kapıları ortadan kaldırarak hız için doğruluktan taviz verdiler. Bu da demek oluyor ki, yalnızca sekiz satırı kaybetmek, hesaplamayı 256 kat daha hızlı hale getirirken, %0,37’lik bir doğruluk payı ile aslına uygunluk sağlar.

Araştırmacılar, gerçekten rastgele, temsili bir küme elde etmek için kendi yeniliklerine dayanarak 9 katrilyon olası sayı dizisinden 1 milyonunun çıktı modelini hesapladılar. Hesaplama, 512 GPU’da 15 saat sürdü ve çarpıcı sonuçlar verdi. Maryland Üniversitesi, College Park’ta kuantum bilgisayar bilimcisi olan Dominik Hangleiter, “Google deneyinin geleneksel bir bilgisayarda simüle edildiğini söylemek doğru olur” diyor. Zhang, “bir süper bilgisayarda hesaplamanın birkaç düzine saniye süreceğini söylüyor.” – Bu süre, Google ekibinin tahmininden 10 milyar kat daha hızlı.

Araştırmacılar, ilerlemenin, bir kuantum bilgisayarı geleneksel bir bilgisayarla yarıştırma tuzaklarının altını çizdiğini söylüyor. Aaronson, “Daha iyi kuantum üstünlüğü deneylerine acilen ihtiyaç var” diyor. Zhang daha pratik bir yaklaşım öneriyor: “Kuantum avantajını göstermek için bazı gerçek dünya uygulamaları bulmalıyız.”

Yine de araştırmacılar, Google gösterisinin sadece aldatmaca olmadığını söylüyorlar. Zhang, Sycamore’un bir süper bilgisayardan çok daha az işlem ve daha az güç gerektirdiğini belirtiyor. 

 “eğer Sycamore biraz daha yüksek sadakate sahip olsaydı, ekibinin simülasyonu devam edemezdi.” diyor. Hangleiter’in dediği gibi, “Google deneyi yapılması gerekeni yaptı, bu yarışa başlayın.”

doi: 10.1126/science.ade2364

Çeviren: Hüseyin Türker
Editör: Damla Gözük

Kaynak:

Bu içeriği paylaş
Önceki İçerikFizikçiler Düzensizliğe Yol Açan Temel Yasayı Yeniden Yazıyor
Sonraki İçerikKuantumla İlgilenen Araştırmacılar Kuantum Ağ Üzerinden Kuantum Bilgiyi Teleport Etti

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