Ana Sayfa Kuantum Gazetesi Çok parçalı sistemlerde etkili teorileri deneysel olarak belirleme

Çok parçalı sistemlerde etkili teorileri deneysel olarak belirleme

Heidelberg Üniversitesi Kirchhoff Fizik Enstitüsü'nde deney düzeneği. Kaynak: Alexis Bonnin

Fizik biliminde genel amaçlardan biri, temel olarak sistem bileşenlerinin birbirleriyle nasıl etkileşime girdiğini inceleyerek doğanın fiziksel tanımlarını keşfetmektir. Bu amaçla, karmaşık ve çok parçalı sistemler için etkili teoriler (effective theory) sıklıkla kullanılmaktadır. En küçük ölçeklerde bile bir sistemi gözlemlemek zorunda kalmadan etkileşimleri tanımlamaya izin vermektedirler. Heidelberg Üniversitesi’nden fizikçiler, bu teorileri kuantum simülatörlerinin yardımıyla deneysel olarak tanımlamayı mümkün kılan yeni bir yöntem geliştirdiler. Prof. Dr. Markus Oberthaler (deneysel fizik) ve Prof. Dr. Jürgen Berges (teorik fizik) liderliğindeki araştırma ekibinin çalışmasının sonuçları Nature Physics dergisinde yayınlanmıştır.

Mikroskobik ölçekten, parçacıklar ölçeğine kadar fiziksel olaylarla ilgili tahminlerin türetilmesi, büyük sistemler için pratik olarak imkansızdır. Makalenin baş yazarı Torsten Zache “Araştırmamız bu sistemleri tanımlayabilecek teorileri deneylerde kuantum simülatörleri yardımıyla tanımlamayı amaçlamıştır.” diyerek araştırma ekibinin bu deneyi neden gerçekleştirdiğini belirtiyor.

Kuantum simülatörleri, birçok sistemi daha basit bir şekilde değiştirmek ve özelliklerini hesaplamak için kullanılır. Heidelberg fizikçileri yakın zamanda yeni geliştirilen yöntemlerini optik tuzakta yakalanan ve dengeden çıkarılan ultra soğuk rubidyum atomları üzerinde yapılan bir deneyde gösterdiler. Deney sonucunda atomların yönlerinin, yeni süreçlerin kullanımı ile tam olarak okunabilen minik mıknatıslar gibi davranmakta olduğu gözlemlendi.

Profesör Oberthaler’e göre “Temeldeki teorik kavramlar, deney sonuçlarını tamamen yeni bir şekilde yorumlamamıza ve böylece teoriyle o zamana kadar erişilemeyen alanlara yapılan deneylerle iç görü kazanmamıza izin verebilir.”

Heidelberg fizikçileri tarafından kullanılan yaklaşım bir dizi başka sisteme aktarılabilir, böylece kuantum simülasyonları için çığır açan bir gelişim sunabilir. Jürgen Berges ve Markus Oberthaler, etkili teorileri (effective theories) tanımlamanın bu yeni yolunun fizikteki temel soruları yanıtlamayı mümkün kılacağından eminler.


  1. Materyal tarafından Heidelberg Üniversitesi
  2. M. Prüfer, T.V. Zache, P. Kunkel, S. Lannig, A. Bonnin, H. Strobel, J. Berges, and M.K. Oberthaler: Experimental extraction of the quantum effective action for a non-equilibrium many-body system. Nature physics (published online 15 June 2020).
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QTurkey, Türkiye’deki kuantum teknolojileriyle ilgili faaliyetler için bir iletişim ve işbirliği ağıdır. “Kuantum Programlamaya Giriş” çalıştayları düzenliyor, ilgili konulardaki ilgili öğrenciler için çalışma grupları ve toplantılar organize ediyoruz ve ülke düzeyinde kuantum meraklıları için bir buluşma alanı oluşturabilme amacıyla hareket ediyoruz.


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